Lutz On Powerlink

Raymond Lutz's comments in review of the Draft IER

Comments to Administrative Judge on 2/25/2008
Raymond Lutz, Candidate for the 77th Assembly District, Lutz For Assembly.com. and I am a degreed Electrical Engineer.

The Sunrise Powerlink is the wrong project at the wrong time. Experts agree it is not needed to capitalize on renewable resources in Imperial valley. Instead, with power generation in Mexico supplied by the new LNG terminal, the overall gameplan of Sempra continues our addiction to imported fuel. This is a national security issue that we must address.

The community can see through to the hidden agenda of this project, and it has nothing to do with the needs of San Diego County or to transition to renewable power generation.

The community can see the proposed disaster to the scenic quality of the Anza Borrego Desert State park and the wasted money on a false solution as we turn our economy toward a different future, a future based on local generation and distributed solar and wind power.

The proposed 500KV Transmission Line would theoretically have a maximum power capacity of about 1000MW. But that is a capacity that we don't need right now. Saving or generating only 1000W per household would cover the entire capacity. The estimated lifetime cost of $7Billion will more than cover converting homeowners to conserve and install local production.

But SDGE and Sempra won't make more money if we turn to distributed solar and local generation. This is a conflict of interest -- of our interest-- if we let them continue down this path. Sunrise Power Link is the wrong solution, and it MUST be stopped. But the wheels of government have been greased for years by these power monopolies, and it will take this public outcry to stop it.

I will continue to fight to stop Sunrise Powerlink. Thank you.


Extracted from the IER:
The SDG&E service territory is currently served by one 500 kV circuit that imports electricity from the Imperial Valley, Arizona, and Mexico between the Imperial Valley and Miguel Substations. The existing 500 kV lines serving the San Diego area is called the Southwest Powerlink (SWPL). Five 230 kV lines south of San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station provide San Diego’s only other connection to the remainder of the U.S. grid. Two 230 kV lines interconnect with Mexico, and one 230 kV line interconnects with the Imperial Irrigation District, but SDG&E does not rely upon imports over these connections because they occur outside of CAISO control.

Today, SDG&E’s ability to reliably import is defined by two transmission import boundaries or constraints: the SDG&E simultaneous import limit (SIL) and non-simultaneous import limit (NSIL).9 The SIL, currently rated at 2,850 MW, is defined by SDG&E’s ability to import power into its system at the Miguel Substation with the five 230 kV lines that make up the “South of SONGS” path (or Path 44). The 2,850 MW SIL limit applies when all transmission facilities are in operation. When SWPL is out of operation, the NSIL is 2,500 MW. Local generation must be used to make up any deficit between the import limits and load.

The Sunrise Powerlink Project would greatly expand the import capability for SDG&E. The Proposed Project would increase SDG&E’s simultaneous import limit from 2,850 MW to 4,200 MW, and the non-simultaneous import limit would increase from 2,500 MW to 3,500 MW
HOW DOES THIS MAKE SENSE?

In one paragraph, it says that the capacity of the SRPL is
4200-2850=1350 MW
Then, it says it is
3500-2500=1000 MW
  • 350 MW for the SWPL 500KV system
  • 2500 MW for 5 230KV lines
  • 500MW each?

THIS DOESN'T MAKE SENSE. TOTAL SIL SHOULD BE 3,850 MW.

The power capacity of the 500 KV line is implied to be 1000MW. However, the power capacity of the existing 500 KW SWPL is only shown as 350MW.


Assuming 1000MW is possible, how much conservation is required to offset the additional supply?

  • Population of San Diego County = 2,941,454
  • Households = 994,677 = approximately 1M households
  • Power per household is 1000MW / 1M = 1KW

  • Compact Flourescent: Savings of 60W to 13W = 47W; 1000/47 = 21

EACH HOUSEHOLD NEEDS TO CONSERVE ONLY 1000W TO MAKE UP THE POWER DIFFERENCE. BY REPLACING 21 60W LIGHT BULBS TO FLOURESCENT BULBS (SAVES 47W EACH) THAT SAVES THE POWER.

ONE TYPICAL 15A CIRCUIT IN THE HOME CAN DELIVER UP TO 15A x 110V = 1650W
However, breaker would nuisance-trip when the current reached about 80% of maximum. That leaves us with 12A * 120V = 1,440W

LED LIGHTS: 10.5 - 14.8 Volts DC @ 530ma NOMINAL 12V AT 530ma puts out same light as 50W incandescent.

12V*530ma = 6.36W

CHANGING TO LED LIGHTS CUTS POWER IN HALF FROM FLOURESCENT, but they are still expensive.

California Independent System Operator (CAISO)

Transmission and distribution losses in the USA were estimated at 7.2% in 1995 [2], and in the UK at 7.4% in 1998. [3]

Power is always partially lost by transmission.

The amount of power that can be sent over a transmission line is limited. The origins of the limits vary depending on the length of the line. For a short line, the heating of conductors due to line losses sets a "thermal" limit. If too much current is drawn, conductors may sag too close to the ground, or conductors and equipment may be damaged by overheating. For intermediate-length lines on the order of 100 km (60 miles), the limit is set by the voltage drop in the line. For longer AC lines, system stability sets the limit to the power that can be transferred. Approximately, the power flowing over an AC line is proportional to the sine of the phase angle between the receiving and transmitting ends. Since this angle varies depending on system loading and generation, it is undesirable for the angle to approach 90 degrees. Very approximately, the allowable product of line length and maximum load is proportional to the square of the system voltage. Series capacitors or phase-shifting transformers are used on long lines to improve stability. High-voltage direct current lines are restricted only by thermal and voltage drop limits, since the phase angle is not material to their operation.

If everything else remained unchanged, building new lines or upgrading the existing ones would clearly enhance the security of the overall system. The security margin (i.e. the difference between the power that the system is designed to handle and what actually flows) would indeed be much higher. Even during periods of high demand, the system would be able to withstand more than just the credible contingencies.

It is very unlikely, however that everything else would remain unchanged. Additions and upgrades to the transmission network are immediately reflected in the models that engineers use to evaluate the security of the system and calculate the available transmission capacity. Unless the rules governing the usage of the system are changed, this additional transmission capacity would be made available to all users of the transmission network. Economic considerations dictate that this new capacity will inevitably be used for increased power transfers from regions with inexpensive generation to regions with a high demand. Security might be enhanced in the short run because new economic transactions using the existing generating plants might not absorb all the additional transmission capacity. In the long run, however, generating plants will be built in a way that makes full use of the transmission network. At that point, the system will again be operating at the limit dictated by the security rules and the probability of a blackout will not have diminished. We can therefore conclude that building new transmission lines and upgrading the existing transmission system do not inherently enhance the security of the transmission system. On the other hand, these investments have significant economic benefits because they relax some of the limitations that the transmission network places on the electricity markets.

Street lights:

Spec for San Diego:

Lamps shall be high pressure sodium vapor, with clear glass bulbs, suitable for use in street lighting, and designed to operate in a horizontal position. The rated average life shall be 24,000 hours or more, and the lumen output shall be 9,500 for 100-watt lamps and 30,000 for 250-watt lamps. (95 lumens per watt, 120 lumens per watt)

In a 120 volt, 100 watt "standard" bulb with a rated light output of 1750 lumens, the efficiency is 17.5 lumens per watt. This compares poorly to an "ideal" of 242.5 lumens per watt for one idealized type of white light, or 683 lumens per watt ideally for the yellowish-green wavelength of light that the human eye is most sensitive to.

A halogen bulb is often 10 to 20 percent more efficient than an ordinary incandescent bulb of similar voltage, wattage, and life expectancy. Halogen bulbs may also have two to three times as long a lifetime as ordinary bulbs, sometimes also with an improvement in efficiency of up to 10 percent. How much the lifetime and efficiency are improved depends largely on whether a premium fill gas (usually krypton, sometimes xenon) or argon is used.

The most efficient colored LEDs have overal luminous efficacy of approx. 53 lumens/watt. The most efficient white LEDs get around 64-80 lumens/watt, with one that achieves typically 69 lumens/watt announced on 10/9/2006 to be in production. Many really good ones still only achieve about 25-45 lumens/watt. LEDs: 45 lm/W (2006) 25 lm/W (2003)

A 20 watt fluorescent bulb of a higher light output color should make as much light as a 75 watt incandescent (1170 to 1210 lumens) 1210/20 = 60 lumens per watt.

Sulphur lights:

1000 watts and 140,000 lumens. = 140 lumens per watt. efficacy of the whole fixture is 31 lumens per watt.

other light sources which have efficacies up to 180 lumens per watt

Photovoltaic Systems (PV)

By 1999, the worldwide capacity of PV had reached 1000 MW. Total of installed PV is around 6,000 MWp (Mega-watt-peak) as of the end of 2006. It is projected to reach more than 9,000 MWp by the end of 2007.

To equip 1M homes with 1000W PV systems would cost about $8K per system or less. Resulting cost of equivalent power capacity to SPL is about $8B or less.

SRPL is slated to cost $1.3 billion. Analysis suggests the true price tag will be closer to $2 billion. Over its 40 year depreciable life, the state's customers will be obligated to pay over $7 billion.

SDGE says that to produce the needed amount of renewable energy locally would require that solar panels be installed on 855,000 residential rooftops at a cost of $21 billion.

In fact, in all of San Diego County,, about 12 .6 MW of solar PV is in place in all residential and commercial installations,

What about putting the Sunrise Powerlink cost of S1 .0 B to $1 .4 B into roof top solar? If;the.state PUC allowed SDG&E to put this directly into PV panels at about $8 per watt, then it could buy about 150 MW worth of solar. That would be about 4% of our current power demand. If the Sunrise Powerlink cost was used in San Diego as a rebate (similar to the existing state rebate program), it could pay for about 325 MW of solar. The existing state refund program has cost the state about $3.70 per watt.

Energy efficiency/ conservation is even more important than new power sources. . Simple. things like switching your lights to florescent bulbs, getting rid of your old refrigerator, planting trees on the east and west side of your home to block sun.

SDG&E's own numbers show it will need only 354 Mw of new resources by 2018. UCAN's analysis shows that SDG&E's current resource plan will fulfill all but 6 Mw of that projected need - without any transmission additions.

Bill in Calif. legislature allowing reverse metering over and above use - AB 94

(h) For eligible residential and small commercial customer-generators, the net energy metering calculation shall be made by measuring the difference between the electricity supplied to the eligible customer-generator and the electricity generated by the eligible customer-generator and fed back to the electric grid over a 12-month period. The following rules shall apply to the annualized net metering calculation:

(1) The eligible residential or small commercial customer-generator shall, at the end of each 12-month period following the date of final interconnection of the eligible customer-generator's system with an electricity distribution utility or cooperative , and at each anniversary date thereafter, be billed for electricity used during that 12-month period. The electricity distribution utility or cooperative shall determine if the eligible residential or small commercial customer-generator was a net consumer or a net producer of electricity during that period.

(2) At the end of each 12-month period, where the electricity supplied during the period by the electricity distribution utility or cooperative exceeds the electricity generated by the eligible residential or small commercial customer-generator during that same period, the eligible residential or small commercial customer-generator is a net electricity consumer and the electricity distribution utility or cooperative shall be owed compensation for the eligible customer-generator's net kilowatthour consumption over that same 12-month period. The compensation owed for the eligible residential or small commercial customer-generator's consumption shall be calculated as follows:

(A) For all eligible customer-generators taking service under contracts or tariffs employing "baseline" and "over baseline" rates or charges , any net monthly consumption of electricity shall be calculated according to the terms of the contract or tariff to which the same customer would be assigned to , or be eligible for , if the customer was not an eligible customer-generator. If those same customer-generators are net generators over a billing period, the net kilowatthours generated shall be valued at the same price per kilowatthour as the electricity distribution utility or cooperative would charge for the baseline quantity of electricity during that billing period, and if the number of kilowatthours generated exceeds the baseline quantity, the excess shall be valued at the same price per kilowatthour as the electricity distribution utility or cooperative would charge for electricity over the baseline quantity during that billing period.

(B) For all eligible customer-generators taking service under contracts or tariffs employing "time of use" rates or charges , any net monthly consumption of electricity shall be calculated according to the terms of the contract or tariff to which the same customer would be assigned to , or be eligible for , if the customer was not an eligible customer-generator. When those same customer-generators are net generators during any discrete time of use period, the net kilowatthours produced shall be valued at the same price per kilowatthour as the electricity distribution utility or cooperative would charge for retail kilowatthour sales during that same time of use period. If the eligible customer-generator's time of use electrical meter is unable to measure the flow of electricity in two directions, paragraph (3) of subdivision (b) subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (c) shall apply.

(C) For all eligible residential and small commercial customer-generators and for each billing period, the net balance of moneys owed to the electricity distribution utility or cooperative for net consumption of electricity or credits owed to the eligible customer-generator for net generation of electricity shall be carried forward as a monetary value until the end of each 12-month period. For all eligible commercial, industrial, and agricultural customer-generators , the net balance of moneys owed shall be paid in accordance with the electricity distribution utility or cooperative's normal billing cycle, except that if the eligible commercial, industrial, or agricultural customer-generator is a net electricity producer over a normal billing cycle, any excess kilowatthours generated during the billing cycle shall be carried over to the following billing period as a monetary value, calculated according to the procedures set forth in this section, and appear as a credit on the eligible customer-generator's account, until the end of the annual period when paragraph (3) shall apply.

(3) At the end of each 12-month period, where the electricity generated by the eligible customer-generator during the 12-month period exceeds the electricity supplied by the electricity distribution utility or cooperative during that same period, the eligible customer-generator is a net electricity producer and the electricity distribution utility or cooperative shall retain any excess kilowatthours generated during the prior 12-month period. The eligible customer-generator shall not be owed any compensation for those excess kilowatthours unless the electricity distribution utility or cooperative enters into a purchase agreement with the eligible customer-generator for those excess kilowatthours.

(4) The electric service provider electricity distribution utility or cooperative shall provide every eligible residential or small commercial customer-generator with net electricity consumption information with each regular bill. That information shall include the current monetary balance owed the electricity distribution utility or cooperative for net electricity consumed , or the current amount of excess electricity produced, since the last 12-month period ended. Notwithstanding this subdivision, an electric service provider electricity distribution utility or cooperative shall permit that customer to pay monthly for net energy consumed.

(5) If an eligible residential or small commercial customer-generator terminates the customer relationship with the electricity distribution utility or cooperative, shall reconcile the eligible customer-generator's consumption and production of electricity during any part of a 12-month period following the last reconciliation, according to the requirements set forth in this subdivision, except that those requirements shall apply only to the months since the most recent 12-month bill.

(6) If an electricity distribution utility or cooperative providing net energy metering to a residential or small commercial customer-generator ceases providing that electric service to that customer during any 12-month period, and the customer-generator enters into a new net energy metering contract or tariff with a new electric service provider or electricity distribution utility or cooperative , the 12-month period, with respect to that new electric service provider or electricity distribution utility or cooperative , shall commence on the date on which the new electricity distribution utility or cooperative first supplies electric service to the customer-generator.

(i) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this section, the following provisions shall apply to an eligible customer-generator with a capacity of more than 10 kilowatts, but not exceeding one megawatt, that receives electric service from a local publicly owned electric utility that has elected to utilize a co-energy metering program unless the local publicly owned electric utility chooses to provide service for eligible customer-generators with a capacity of more than 10 kilowatts in accordance with subdivisions (g) and (h):

(1) The eligible customer-generator shall be required to utilize a meter, or multiple meters, capable of separately measuring electricity flow in both directions. All meters shall provide "time-of-use" measurements of electricity flow, and the customer shall take service on a time-of-use rate schedule. If the existing meter of the eligible customer-generator is not a time-of-use meter or is not capable of measuring total flow of energy in both directions, the eligible customer-generator shall be responsible for all expenses involved in purchasing and installing a meter that is both time-of-use and able to measure total electricity flow in both directions. This subdivision shall not restrict the ability of an eligible customer-generator to utilize any economic incentives provided by a government agency or the electric service provider an electricity distribution utility or cooperative to reduce its costs for purchasing and installing a time-of-use meter.

(2) The consumption of electricity from the local publicly owned electric utility shall result in a cost to the eligible customer-generator to be priced in accordance with the standard rate charged to the eligible customer-generator in accordance with the rate structure to which the customer would be assigned if the customer did not use an eligible solar or wind electrical generating facility. The generation of electricity provided to the local publicly owned electric utility shall result in a credit to the eligible customer-generator and shall be priced in accordance with the generation component, established under the applicable structure to which the customer would be assigned if the customer did not use an eligible solar or wind electrical generating facility.

(3) All costs and credits shall be shown on the eligible customer-generator's bill for each billing period. In any months in which the eligible customer-generator has been a net consumer of electricity calculated on the basis of value determined pursuant to paragraph (2), the customer-generator shall owe to the electric service provider local publicly owned electric utility the balance of electricity costs and credits during that billing period. In any billing period in which the eligible customer-generator has been a net producer of electricity calculated on the basis of value determined pursuant to paragraph (2), the local publicly owned electric utility shall owe to the eligible customer-generator the balance of electricity costs and credits during that billing period. Any net credit to the eligible customer-generator of electricity costs may be carried forward to subsequent billing periods, provided that a local publicly owned electric utility may choose to carry the credit over as a kilowatthour credit consistent with the provisions of any applicable contract or tariff, including any differences attributable to the time of generation of the electricity. At the end of each 12-month period, the local publicly owned electric utility may reduce any net credit due to the eligible customer-generator to zero.

(j) A solar or wind turbine electrical generating system, or a hybrid system of both, used by an eligible customer-generator shall meet all applicable safety and performance standards established by the National Electrical Code, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and accredited testing laboratories, including Underwriters Laboratories and, where applicable, rules of the commission regarding safety and reliability. A customer-generator whose solar or wind turbine electrical generating system, or a hybrid system of both, meets those standards and rules shall not be required to install additional controls, perform or pay for additional tests, or purchase additional liability insurance.

(k) If the commission determines that there are cost or revenue obligations for an electric corporation, as defined in Section 218, that may not be recovered from customer-generators acting pursuant to this section, those obligations shall remain within the customer class from which any shortfall occurred and may not be shifted to any other customer class. Net energy metering and co-energy metering customers shall not be exempt from the public goods charges imposed pursuant to Article 7 (commencing with Section 381), Article 8 (commencing with Section 385), or Article 15 (commencing with Section 399) of Chapter 2.3 of Part 1 . In its report to the Legislature, the commission shall examine different methods to ensure that the public goods charges remain nonbypassable .

-- Raymond Lutz - 11 Jan 2007
Topic revision: r2 - 2016-05-16, UnknownUser
 

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